1790s

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The Coup of Napoleon Bonaparte

The Coup of Napoleon Bonaparte

In November 1799, in an event known as the coup of 18 Brumaire, Napoleon was part of a group (the Jacobins and Freemasons) that successfully overthrew the French Directory. The Directory was replaced with a three-member Consulate, and Napoleon became first consul, making him France’s leading political figure. In June 1800, at the Battle of Marengo, Napoleon’s forces defeated one of France’s perennial enemies, the Austrians, and drove them out of Italy. The victory helped cement Napoleon’s power as first consul. Additionally, with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, the war-weary British agreed to peace with the French (although ...
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George Washington Gives Nations 1st State of the Union Address: “A free people ought not only to be armed, but disciplined…”

George Washington Gives Nations 1st State of the Union Address: “A free people ought not only to be armed, but disciplined…”

On January 8, 1790, President George Washington delivered to Congress the first State of the Union address in American history. This address presented defense, foreign policy, economic, education, and immigration related topics to gathered representatives and senators in Federal Hall, New York City. Fellow Citizens of the Senate, and House of Representatives. I embrace with great satisfaction the opportunity, which now presents itself, of congratulating you on the present favourable prospects of our public affairs. The recent accession of the important State of North Carolina to the Constitution of the United States (of which official information has been recieved)—the ...
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